239 Chemistry A2-Level Revision Notes Series

/ 15
1 Chemical Energetics 8
1.1 Lattice Energy (ΔHoLE) 8
1.2 Born Haber Cycle 9
1.3 Entropy ‘S’ 13
1.4 Free Energy OR Gibbs Free Energy ‘G’ 16
1.5 End of Chapter Past Paper Questions 19
2 Electrochemistry 26
2.1 The Relationship, F = L  e 26
2.2 Identity of The Substance Liberated During Electrolysis 27
2.3 Electrode Potential 29
2.4 Standard Hydrogen Electrode (SHE) 30
2.5 Fuel Cell 36
2.6 End of Chapter Past Paper Questions 38
3 Equilibria 44
3.1 Dissociation Constants 44
3.2 Ionic Product / Dissociation Constant of Water ‘Kw’ 45
3.3 Buffer 50
3.4 Solubility Product ‘Ksp’ 52
3.5 Common Ion Effect 53
3.6 Partition Coefficient Kpc 55
3.7 End of Chapter Past Paper Questions 59
4 Reaction Kinetics 66
4.1 Rate Law and Rate Equation 66
4.2 Reaction Mechanism 70
4.3 Catalysis 71
4.4 End of Chapter Past Paper Questions 73
5 Group 2 82
5.1 Thermal Stability of Carbonates and Nitrates 82
5.2 Solubility of Group II Metal Sulphates 82
5.3 End of Chapter Past Paper Questions 84
6 Transition Elements 88
6.1 Electronic Configuration of Atom and Ion of First Series of Transition Elements 88
6.2 Complexes 89
6.3 Stereo Isomerism in Transition Element Complexes 91
6.4 Stability Constants in Ligand Exchange Reactions 93
6.5 Colour of Transition Element Complexes 94
6.6 End of Chapter Past Paper Questions 96
7 An Introduction to Organic Chemistry 106
7.1 Arenes or Aromatic Organic Compounds 106
7.2 End of Chapter Past Paper Questions 114
8 Hydroxy Benzene (Phenol) 118
8.1 Phenols 118
8.2 Relative Acidities of Phenol, Water and Ethanol 118
8.3 Chemical Reaction of Phenols 119
8.4 End of Chapter Past Paper Questions 121
9 Carboxylic Acids Derivatives 128
9.1 Acidity of Carboxylic Acids and Chlorine Substituted Acids 128
9.2 Acyl Chlorides 129
9.3 Relative Ease of Hydrolysis of Chloro Compounds 131
9.4 End of Chapter Past Paper Questions 132
10 Nitrogen Compounds 138
10.1 Amines (R – NH2) 138
10.2 Amides – R-O||C-NH2 140
10.3 Amino Acids: H2N – CHR – COOH 141
10.4 Electrophoresis 142
10.5 Protein Structure 144
10.6 End of Chapter Past Paper Questions 146
11 Polymerisation 154
11.1 Condensation Polymers and Polymerisation 154
11.2 Deduce Type of Polymerization And Monomer From The Polymer 156
11.3 Designing Special Polymers 156
11.4 Degradable Polymers 157
11.5 Deoxyribose Nucleic Acids DNA 158
11.6 End of Chapter Past Paper Questions 160
12 Analytical Chemistry 168
12.1 Chromatography 168
12.2 Mass Spectrometry 172
12.3 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy 175
12.4 Carbon-13 NMR Spectroscopy 181
12.5 End of Chapter Past Paper Questions 183
13 Organic Synthesis 194
13.1 Synthesis of Chiral Drug Molecules 194
13.2 Synthetic Routes 198
13.3 End of Chapter Past Paper Questions 199