231 Chemistry AS-level P-1 (MCQ’s) Classified/Topical

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1 ATOMS, MOLECULES AND STOICHIOMETRY 8
1.1 Relative masses of atoms and molecules 8
1.2 The mole and the Avogadro constant 9
1.3 The determination of relative atoms masses 13
1.4 The calculation of empirical and molecular formulae 15
1.5 Reacting masses of empirical and molecular formulae 18
1.6 Multiple topics 24
1 ANSWER SECTION-1 30
2 ATOMIC STRTUCTURE 32
2.1 Particles in the atom 32
2.2 The nucleus of the atom 38
2.3 Electrons: energy levels, atomic orbitals, ionisation energy, electron affinity 39
2.4 Multiple topics 48
2 ANSWER SECTION-1 54
3 CHEMICAL BONDING 56
3.1 Ionic bonding 56
3.2 Covalent bonding and co-ordinate (dative covalent) bonding including shapes of simple molecules 58
3.3 Intermolecular forces, electronegativity and bond properties 70
3.4 Metallic bonding 74
3.5 Bonding and physical properties 78
3.6 Multiple topics 82
3 ANSWER SECTION-1 87
4 STATES OF MATTER 90
4.1 The gaseous state ideal and real gases and pV = nRT 90
4.2 The solid state lattice structures 100
4.3 Multiple topics 101
4 ANSWER SECTION-1 104
5 CHEMICAL ENERGETICS 106
5.1 Enthalpy change 106
5.2 Hess’ Law, including Born-Haber cycles 128
5.3 Multiple topics 134
5 ANSWER SECTION-1 134
6 ELECTROCHEMISTRY 136
6.1 Redox processes, electron transfer and changes in oxidation number (oxidation state) 136
6.2 Multiple topics 149
6 ANSWER SECTION-1 150
7 EQUILIBRIA 152
7.1 Chemical equilibria, reversible reactions; dynamic equilibrium 152
7.2 Multiple topics 175
7 ANSWER SECTION-1 178
8 REACTION KINETICS 180
8.1 Simple rate equations; orders of reaction; rate constants 180
8.2 Effect of temperature on reaction rates and rate constant; the concept of activation energy 183
8.3 Homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis including enzymes 193
8.4 Multiple topics 8 ANSWER SECTION-1 202
9 THE PERIODIC TABLE: CHEMICAL PERIODICTY 204
9.1 Periodicity of physical properties of the elements in the third period 204
9.2 Periodicity of chemistry properties of the elements in the third period 214
9.3 Chemical periodicity of other elements 224
9.4 Multiple topics 227
9 ANSWER SECTION-1 231
10 GROUP 2 234
10.1 Similarities and trends in the properties of the Group 2 metals, magnesium to barium and their compounds 234
10.2 Some uses of Group 2 compounds 247
10.3 Multiple topics 250
10 ANSWER SECTION-1 255
11 GROUP 17 258
11.1 Physical properties of the Group 17 elements 258
11.2 The chemical properties of the elements and their hydrides 261
11.3 Some reactions of the halide ions 266
11.4 The reactions of chlorine with aqueous sodium hydroxide 273
11.5 Some important uses of the halogens and of halogen commands 276
11.6 Multiple topics 277
11 ANSWER SECTION-1 280
12 NITROGEN AND SULFUR 282
12.1 Nitrogen 282
12.2 Sulfur: The formation of atmospheric sulfur dioxide, its role in acid rain 287
12.3 Multiple topics 291
12 ANSWER SECTION-1 300
13 AN INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIC CHEMISTRY 302
13.1 Formulae, functional groups and the naming of organic compounds 302
13.2 Characteristic organic reactions 304
13.3 Shapes of organic molecules’s and p bonds 305
13.4 Isomerism, structural and stereoisomerism 306
13.5 Multiple topics 320
13 ANSWER SECTION-1 322
14 HYDROCARBNONS 324
14.1 Alkanes 324
14.2 Alkenes 330
14.3 Hydrocarbons as fuel 345
14.4 Multiple topics 346
14 ANSWER SECTION-1 353
15 HALOGEN DERIVATIVES 356
15.1 Halogenalkanes and halogenoarenes 356
15.2 Relative strength of the C-Hal bond 372
15.3 Multiple topics 375
15 ANSWER SECTION-1 380
16 HYDROXY COMPOUNDS 382
16.1 Alcohols 382
16.2 Multiple topics 403
16 ANSWER SECTION-1 405
17 CARBONYL COMPOUNDS 408
17.1 Aldehydes and ketones 408
17.2 Multiple topics 427
17 ANSWER SECTION-1 439
18 CARBOXYLIC ACIDS AND DERIVATIVES 443
18.1 Carboxylic acids 443
18.2 Acyl chlorides 453
18.3 Esters 454
18.4 Multiple topics 468
18 ANSWER SECTION-1 472
19 NITROGEN COMPOUNDS 474
19.1 Primary amines 474
19.2 Multiple topics 475
19 ANSWER SECTION-1 476
20 POLYMERISATION 478
20.1 Predicting the type of polymerization 478
20.2 Multiple topics 480
20 ANSWER SECTION-1 482
21 ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES 484
21.1 Infra-red spectroscopy 484
21.2 Multiple topics 488
21 ANSWER SECTION-1 489
22 ORGANIC SYNTHESIS 492
22.1 Multiple topics 492
22 ANSWER SECTION-1 493