226 Chemistry O-Level P-2 Topical Workbook

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1 EXPERIMENTAL CHEMISTRY 9
1.1 Experimental design (Section-A) 10
1.1 ANSWER SECTION 11
1.2 Methods of purification and analysis (Section-A) 12
1.2 ANSWER SECTION 16
1.2 Methods of purification and analysis (Section-B) 17
1.2 ANSWER SECTION 18
1.3 Identification of ions and gases (Section-A) 19
1.3 ANSWER SECTION 28
1.3 Identification of ions and gases (Section-B) 31
1.3 ANSWER SECTION 37
1.4 Multiple Topics (Section-B) 39
1.4 ANSWER SECTION 40
2 The particulate nature of matter 41
2.1 Kinetic particle theory (Section-A) 42
2.1 ANSWER SECTION 48
2.1 Kinetic particle theory (Section-B) 50
2.1 ANSWER SECTION 52
2.2 Atomic structure (Section-A) 53
2.2 ANSWER SECTION 60
2.2 Atomic structure (Section-B) 64
2.2 ANSWER SECTION 66
2.3 Structure and properties of materials (Section-A) 67
2.3 ANSWER SECTION 68
2.3 Structure and properties of materials (Section-B) 69
2.3 ANSWER SECTION 70
2.4 Ionic bonding (Section-A) 71
2.4 ANSWER SECTION 75
2.4 Ionic bonding (Section-B) 77
2.4 ANSWER SECTION 82
2.5 Covalent bonding (Section-A) 84
2.5 ANSWER SECTION 97
2.5 Covalent bonding (Section-B) 102
2.5 ANSWER SECTION 109
2.6 Metallic bonding (Section-A) 111
2.6 ANSWER SECTION 113
2.6 Metallic bonding (Section-B) 114
2.6 ANSWER SECTION 116
2.7 Multiple Topics (Section-A) 117
2.7 ANSWER SECTION 118
2.7 Multiple Topics (Section-B) 119
2.7 ANSWER SECTION 120
3 Formulae, stoichiometry and the mole concept 121
3.1 Chemical formulas (Section-B) 122
3.1 ANSWER SECTION 128
3.2 Calculation of AR or MR (Section-B) 130
3.2 ANSWER SECTION 131
3.3 Stoichiometry (Section-A) 132
3.3 ANSWER SECTION 156
3.3 Stoichiometry (Section-B) 164
3.3 ANSWER SECTION 189
3.4 Multiple Topics (Section-A) 196
3.4 ANSWER SECTION 198
3.4 Multiple Topics (Section-B) 199
3.4 ANSWER SECTION 200
4 ELECTROLYSIS 201
4.1 Electrolysis of binary compounds (Section-A) 202
4.1 ANSWER SECTION 207
4.1 Electrolysis of binary compounds (Section-B) 209
4.1 ANSWER SECTION 216
4.2 Simple cells (Section-A) 219
4.2 ANSWER SECTION 220
4.2 Simple cells (Section-B) 221
4.2 ANSWER SECTION 222
4.3 Multiple Topics (Section-A) 223
4.3 ANSWER SECTION 226
4.3 Multiple Topics (Section-B) 227
4.3 ANSWER SECTION 229
5 ENERGY FROM CHEMICALS 231
5.1 Definition of exo & endothermic reactions (Section-A) 232
5.1 ANSWER SECTION 236
5.1 Definition of exo & endothermic reactions (Section-B) 238
5.1 ANSWER SECTION 244
5.2 Fractional distillation of crude oil & photosynthesis (Section-A) 246
5.2 ANSWER SECTION 248
5.2 Fractional distillation of crude oil & photosynthesis (Section-B) 249
5.2 ANSWER SECTION 250
5.3 Multiple Topics (Section-A) 251
5.3 ANSWER SECTION 252
5.3 Multiple Topics (Section-B) 253
5.3 ANSWER SECTION 254
6 CHEMICAL REACTIONS 255
6.1 Rate of reaction (Section-A) 256
6.1 ANSWER SECTION 266
6.1 Rate of reaction (Section-B) 269
6.1 ANSWER SECTION 280
6.2 Redox (Section-A) 283
6.2 ANSWER SECTION 290
6.2 Redox (Section-B) 292
6.2 ANSWER SECTION 296
6.3 Reversible reactions (Section-A) 298
6.3 ANSWER SECTION 300
6.3 Reversible reactions (Section-B) 301
6.3 ANSWER SECTION 315
6.4 Multiple Topics (Section-B) 319
6.4 ANSWER SECTION 320
7 The chemistry and uses of acids, bases and salts 321
7.1 The characteristic properties of acids and bases (Section-A) 322
7.1 ANSWER SECTION 329
7.1 The characteristic properties of acids and bases (Section-B) 332
7.1 ANSWER SECTION 339
7.2 PH (Section-A) 342
7.2 ANSWER SECTION 343
7.3 Nature of oxide or classification of oxide (Section-A) 344
7.3 ANSWER SECTION 347
7.3 Nature of oxide or classification of oxide (Section-B) 348
7.3 ANSWER SECTION 349
7.4 Preparation of salts (Section-A) 350
7.4 ANSWER SECTION 354
7.4 Preparation of salts (Section-B) 356
7.4 ANSWER SECTION 361
7.5 Properties and uses of ammonia (Section-A) 363
7.5 ANSWER SECTION 364
7.5 Properties and uses of ammonia (Section-B) 365
7.5 ANSWER SECTION 368
7.6 Sulfuric acid (Section-A) 370
7.6 ANSWER SECTION 373
7.6 Sulfuric acid (Section-B) 374
7.6 ANSWER SECTION 376
7.7 Multiple Topics (Section-A) 377
7.7 ANSWER SECTION 379
7.7 Multiple Topics (Section-B) 380
7.7 ANSWER SECTION 381
8 THE PERIODIC TABLE 383
8.1 Periodic trends (Section-A) 384
8.1 ANSWER SECTION 387
8.1 Periodic trends (Section-B) 389
8.1 ANSWER SECTION 390
8.2 Group properties (Section-A) 391
8.2 ANSWER SECTION 395
8.2 Group properties (Section-B) 397
8.2 ANSWER SECTION 400
8.3 Transition elements (Section-A) 401
8.3 ANSWER SECTION 402
8.3 Transition elements (Section-B) 403
8.3 ANSWER SECTION 405
8.4 Multiple Topics (Section-A) 406
8.4 ANSWER SECTION 407
8.4 Multiple Topics (Section-B) 408
8.4 ANSWER SECTION 410
9 METALS 411
9.1 Properties of metals (Section-A) 411
9.1 ANSWER SECTION 417
9.1 Properties of metals (Section-B) 419
9.1 ANSWER SECTION 423
9.2 Reactivity series (Section-A) 424
9.2 ANSWER SECTION 429
9.2 Reactivity series (Section-B) 431
9.2 ANSWER SECTION 433
9.3 Extraction of metals (Section-A) 434
9.3 ANSWER SECTION 435
9.3 Extraction of metals (Section-B) 436
9.3 ANSWER SECTION 437
9.4 Iron (Section-A) 438
9.4 ANSWER SECTION 440
9.4 Iron (Section-B) 441
9.4 ANSWER SECTION 442
9.5 Aluminum (Section-A) 443
9.5 ANSWER SECTION 445
9.5 Aluminum (Section-B) 446
9.5 ANSWER SECTION 448
9.6 Multiple Topics (Section-A) 449
9.6 ANSWER SECTION 452
9.6 Multiple Topics (Section-B) 453
9.6 ANSWER SECTION 456
10 Atmosphere and environment 459
10.1 Air (Section-A) 460
10.1 ANSWER SECTION 459
10.1 Air (Section-B) 474
10.1 ANSWER SECTION 476
10.2 Water (Section-A) 478
10.2 ANSWER SECTION 481
10.2 Water (Section-B) 482
10.2 ANSWER SECTION 483
10.3 Multiple Topics (Section-A) 484
10.3 ANSWER SECTION 485
10.3 Multiple Topics (Section-B) 486
10.3 ANSWER SECTION 488
11 ORGANIC CHEMISTRY 489
11.1 Alkanes (Section-A) 490
11.1 ANSWER SECTION 495
11.1 Alkanes (Section-B) 498
11.1 ANSWER SECTION 508
11.2 Alkenes (Section-A) 512
11.2 ANSWER SECTION 517
11.2 Alkenes (Section-B) 520
11.2 ANSWER SECTION 531
11.3 Alcohols (Section-A) 534
11.3 ANSWER SECTION 539
11.3 Alcohols (Section-B) 542
11.3 ANSWER SECTION 548
11.4 Carboxylic acids (Section-A) 551
11.4 ANSWER SECTION 559
11.4 Carboxylic acids (Section-B) 562
11.4 ANSWER SECTION 573
11.5 Macromolecules (Section-A) 577
11.5 ANSWER SECTION 584
11.5 Macromolecules (Section-B) 587
11.5 ANSWER SECTION 596
11.6 Multiple Topics (Section-A) 599
11.6 ANSWER SECTION 601
11.6 Multiple Topics (Section-B) 602
11.6 ANSWER SECTION 606