238 Chemistry As-Level Revision Teachers Notes Series

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1.1 Atoms, Molecules and Stoichiometry Relative Atomic Mass 10
1.2 Atoms, Molecules and Stoichiometry Calculations of Empirical/Molecular Formula: 11
1.3 Atoms, Molecules and Stoichiometry Chemical Equations: 12
1.4 Atoms, Molecules and Stoichiometry End of Chapter Past Paper Questions 16
2.1 Atomic Structure Atom 24
2.2 Atomic Structure Electronic Configuration 25
2.2 Atomic Structure Ionisation Energy: H OIE 28
2.4 Atomic Structure End of Chapter Past Paper Questions 31
3.1 Chemical Bonding Ionic or Electrovalent Bond: 36
3.2 Chemical Bonding Covalent Bonding: 38
3.3 Chemical Bonding Coordinate or Dative Covalent Bonding 40
3.4 Chemical Bonding Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory 42
3.5 CHEMICAL BONDING Orbital Hybridization 44
3.6 CHEMICAL BONDING Metallic Bond: 48
3.7 CHEMICAL BONDING Inter Molecular Forces of Attractions: 49
3.8 STATES OF MATTER End of chapter past paper questions 52
4.1 STATES OF MATTER Kinetic Molecular Theory (KMT) of Gases 58
4.2 States of Matter Kinetic Molecular Model of Liquids 61
4.3 States of Matter Solids 61
4.4 States of Matter Macromolecules (Giant Covalent Structure): 146
4.5 States of Matter Carbon Nanoparticles: 63
4.6 States of Matter Metallic Lattices 64
4.7 States of Matter End of chapter past paper questions 66
5.1 Chemical Energetics Standard Conditions for Standard Enthalpy Changes 73
5.2 Chemical Energetics Measuring Enthalpy Change of the Reactions 75
5.3 Chemical Energetics Hess’s law 76
5.4 Chemical Energetics Activation Energy (Ea) 78
5.5 Chemical Energetics End of chapter past paper questions: 80
6.1 Electrochemistry End of chapter past paper questions 88
7.1 Equilibria Irreversible and Reversible reactions 92
7.2 Equilibria Le-Chatlier’s Principle 93
7.3 Equilibria Equilibrium Constant Kc 94
7.4 Equilibria Haber’s Process of Ammonia Formation 97
7.5 Equilibria Contact Process of Sulphuric Acid Formation 98
7.6 Equilibria Bronsted – Lowery Theory of Acids and Bases: 98
7.7 Equilibria End of chapter past paper questions 101
8.1 Reaction Kinetics Rate of Reaction 108
8.2 Reaction Kinetics Boltzmann Distribution Curve and Effect of Temperature on Reaction Rate 108
8.3 Reaction Kinetics Catalysis 109
8.4 Reaction Kinetics Enzymes – Biological Catalyst: 110
8.5 Reaction Kinetics End of chapter past paper questions 112
9.1 The Periodic Table: Chemical Periodicity Periodicity of Physical Properties of Third Period Elements 116
9.2 The Periodic Table: Chemical Periodicity Periodicity of Chemical Properties of Third Period Elements 118
9.3 The Periodic Table: Chemical Periodicity Sulfur: Reaction of Sodium and Magnesium with Water 121
9.4 The Periodic Table: Chemical Periodicity End of chapter past paper questions 122
10.1 Group 2 General Characteristic Properties of Group II Elements 130
10.2 Group 2 Behavior of Group II Elements Oxides, Hydroxides and Carbonates 131
10.3 Group 2 Solubility of Group II Metal Sulphates 132
11.1 Group 17 General Characteristics 140
11.2 Group 17 Reaction of Metal Halide with Conc. H 2SO4 141
11.3 Group 17 Disproportion Reaction 142
11.4 Group 17 End of chapter past paper questions 144
12.1 Nitrogen & Sulphur Industrial Importance of Ammonia & Its Compounds 150
12.2 Nitrogen & Sulphur Pollution 151
12.3 Nitrogen & Sulphur Oxides of Nitrogen – Air Pollution 151
13.1 An Introduction to Organic Chemistry Classification of Organic Compounds (Structural) 158
13.2 An Introduction to Organic Chemistry Types of Chemical Formulae 158
13.3 An Introduction to Organic Chemistry IUPAC Rules of Nomenclature (Assign Name to Organic Substances) 160
13.4 An Introduction to Organic Chemistry Characteristic Organic Reactions 166
13.5 An Introduction to Organic Chemistry Isomers 175
13.6 An Introduction to Organic Chemistry End of chapter past paper questions 178
14.1 Hydrocarbons Alkanes 184
14.2 Hydrocarbons Free Radical Substitution Reaction: (characteristic of alkanes-unsaturated) 184
14.3 Hydrocarbons Alkenes 185
14.4 Hydrocarbons Addition Reactions 186
14.5 Hydrocarbons Oxidation of Alkenes 188
14.6 Hydrocarbons Polymerization 189
14.7 Hydrocarbons Problems to Dispose of Plastic Wastes 190
14.8 Hydrocarbons Fractional Distillation of Crude Oil 190
14.9 Hydrocarbons Cracking of Alkanes 191
14.10 Hydrocarbons End of chapter past paper questions 192
15.1 Halogen Derivatives Physical Properties 200
15.2 Halogen Derivatives Reactions of Halogenoalkanes 200
15.3 Halogen Derivatives Uses of Halogenoalkanes 203
15.4 Halogen Derivatives End of chapter past paper questions 205
16.1 Hydroxy Compounds Physical Properties of Alcohols 212
16.2 Hydroxy Compounds Manufacture of Ethanol 212
16.3 Hydroxy Compounds Reactions of Alkanols 213
16.4 Hydroxy Compounds Distinction between primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols 216
16.5 Hydroxy Compounds Tri – Iodo Methane Test 216
16.6 Hydroxy Compounds End of chapter past paper questions 218
17.1 Carbonyl Compounds Preparation of Carbonyl Compounds 224
17.2 Carbonyl Compounds Nucleophilic Addition of Hydrogen Cyanide 224
17.3 Carbonyl Compounds Test For Carbonyl Compounds 226
17.4 Carbonyl Compounds End of chapter past paper questions 227
18.1 Carboxylic Acids & Derivatives Formation of Carboxylic Acids 236
18.2 Carboxylic Acids & Derivatives Reactions of Carboxylic Acids 236
18.3 Carboxylic Acids & Derivatives Formation of Esters 238
18.4 Carboxylic Acids & Derivatives Commercial Uses of Esters 238
18.5 Carboxylic Acids & Derivatives Infra-red Spectroscopy 239
18.6 Carboxylic Acids & Derivatives End of chapter past paper questions 243