234 Chemistry A Level Paper 4 Topical Workbook

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EXPERIMENTAL CHEMISTRY 3
1.1 Experimental Design 3
1.2 Methods of purification and Analysis 9
1.3 Identification of Ions and Gases 18
1.4 Multiple Topics 29
THE PARTICULATE NATURE OF MATTER 32
2.1 Kinetic particle theory. 32
2.2 Atomic structure 40
2.3 Structure and properties of materials 47
2.4 Ionic bonding 51
2.5 Covalent bonding 54
2.6 Multiple topics 60
FORMULAE, STOICHIOMETRY AND THE MOLE CONCEPT 67
3.1 Chemical formulas 67
3.2 Calculation of AR or MR 70
3.3 Stoichiometry 74
3.4 Types of reactions 81
3.5 Multiple topics 84
ELECTROLYSIS 86
4.1 Electrolysis of binary compounds 86
4.2 Simple cells 102
4.3 Multiple topics 104
ENERGY FROM CHEMICALS 108
5.1 Definition of Exo & Endothermic Reactions 108
5.2 Fractional distillation of crude oil & photosynthesis 118
5.3 Multiple topics 121
CHEMICAL REACTIONS 123
6.1 Speed of reaction 123
6.2 Redox 133
6.3 Reversible reactions 141
6.4 Multiple topics 145
THE CHEMISTRY OF ACIDS BASES AND SALTS 147
7.1 The characteristic properties of acids and bases 147
7.2 PH 151
7.3 Nature of oxide or classification of oxide 154
7.4 Preparation of salts 157
7.5 Properties and uses of ammonia 162
7.6 Sulphuric acid 166
7.7 Multiple topics 170
THE PERIODIC TABLE 174
8.1 Periodic trends 174
8.2 Group properties 177
8.3 Transition elements 185
8.4 Multiple Topics 189
METALS 192
9.1 Properties of metals 192
9.2 Reactivity series 196
9.3 Extraction of metals 204
9.4 Iron 206
9.5 Aluminium 212
9.6 Multiple Topics 216
ATMOSPHERE AND ENVIRONMENT 221
10.1 Air 221
10.2 Water 227
10.3 Multiple Topics 230
ORGANIC CHEMISTRY 232
11.1 Alkanes 232
11.2 Alkenes 240
11.3 Alcohols 247
11.4 Carboxylic 253
11.5 Macromolecules 261
11.6 Multiple Topics 271