150 Economics A2 level Paper 4 Topical Past Papers

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UTILITY & BUDGET LINE 8
1.1 UTILITY THEORY & CONSUMER EQUILIBRIUM 8
1.2 BUDGET LINE 19
1.3 INDIFFERENCE CURVE ANALYSIS & TYPES OF GOODS 20
2 PRODUCTION & COST 26
MARKET STRUCTURES 36
3.1 RULES OF FIRM’S BEHAVIOUR 36
3.2 PRICE AND OUTPUT IN MARKET STRUCTURES 37
3.3 COMPARISON OF MARKET STRUCTURES 38
3.4 NORMAL & ABNORMAL PROFITS 50
3.5 CONVERSION OF PERFECT COMPETITION TO MONOPOLY 51
3.6 OBJECTIVES OF FIRMS 55
3.7 PRICE DISCRIMINATION 60
3.8 CONTESTABLE MARKETS 62
ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY AND MARKET FAILURE 64
4.1 EXTERNALITIES, CONCEPTS & EFFECTS 64
4.2 ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY AND MARKET FAILURE 66
4.3 POLICIES TO IMPROVE EFFICIENCY 84
LABOUR MARKET 88
5.1 INDIVIDUAL’S SUPPLY OF LABOUR 88
5.2 WAGE DETERMINATION IN PERFECT AND IMPERFECT MARKETS 89
5.3 WAGE DIFFERENTIALS 102
5.4 ROLE OF TRADE UNIONS 109
5.5 ECONOMIC RENT AND TRANSFER EARNINGS 114
6 INEQUALITY AND POLICIES TO REDISTRIBUTE INCOME 116
NATIONAL INCOME ACCOUNTING 118
7.1 NATIONAL INCOME CALCULATIONS 118
7.2 PROBLEMS OF CALCULATING NATIONAL INCOME 119
7.3 CHARACTERISTICS OF ECONOMIC RECESSION 120
ECONOMIC GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT 122
8.1 STANDARD OF LIVING 122
8.2 SOURCES & POLICES OF ECONOMIC GROWTH 126
8.3 EFFECTS OF ECONOMIC GROWTH 127
8.4 CHARACTERISTICS OF DEVELOPING ECONOMIES 134
8.5 POLICIES TO PROMOTE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT 144
THEORY OF INCOME & EMPLOYMENT 156
9.1 DETERMINANTS OF INVESTMENT 156
9.2 NATIONAL INCOME EQUILIBRIUM 157
9.3 INFLATIONARY & DEFLATIONARY GAP 158
9.4 MULTIPLIER PROCESS & ACCELERATOR 158
9.5 STRENGTH OF MULTIPLIER 165
9.6 PARADOX OF THRIFT 166
INTEREST RATE DETERMINATION AND CHANGES 168
10.1 LIQUIDITY PREFERENCE THEORY 168
MACROECONOMIC POLICES 178
11.1 FISCAL, MONETARY & SUPPLY-SIDE POLICIES 178
UNEMPLOYMENT 194
12.1 CAUSES OR TYPES OF UNEMPLOYMENT 194
12.2 EFFECTS OF UNEMPLOYMENT 198
12.3 MEASUREMENT OF UNEMPLOYMENT 198
13 CONFLICT OF MACROECONOMIC AIMS 202
14 GENERAL QUESTIONS 212